Globalization of Health


Globalization is an international interaction process that integrates various people, companies and governments together. The integration arises or is a product of the interchange of ideas and mutual sharing of worldviews including products. Globalization can also be defined as bringing the world together or connecting to the world through defined systems (Cohen, 2013). Globalization is achieved using internet and other networking platforms that promote sharing of ideas or worldviews. It brings institutions and people together with the aim of providing quality and real time solutions to major problems presented by the environmental conditions. According to Cohen (2013) globalization is a key driver to social and economic integration that organizations that aspire to record exemplary performance must embrace. It brings the world together through a global village concept that has helped in shaping destinies of many individuals globally. Institutions that aims at expanding their networks, reach out to more customers, expand market base and increase productivity must be able embrace globalization as a strategic tool for development.

It remains literally the most viable tool for development in the current 21st century. This is evident since the century is characterized with immense or high levels of innovation, technology advancement and creativity. The aspects run every sector of the economy that includes health, tourism, hotel, transport and agriculture. Globalization enables every sector to meet its performance goals that are aimed at improving service delivery to customers (Connell, 2010). In particular, the health sector has seen tremendous growth and expansion over the years in the US and other nations. The sector has been able to introduce new ways of treatment, Medicare service delivery, infrastructural development, and embrace modern ways of medicine production. Many hospitals in the US including Pfizer operate under a globalization strategy. The hospitals have strong systems and globalized approach to service delivery that enables them to offer basic treatment to patients anywhere globally. The main idea of the health institutions is to make health care acquisition a global thing that can be attained anywhere in the world.

This paper gives detailed analysis of Pfizer Company from a globalized perspective. The company is known for its outstanding performance in the medical sector in US and other jurisdictions where it has strategic business units. It is committed to revolutionizing service delivery in the health sector by bringing drugs or medicine to various health complications closure to the people. The drive was formulated after it was established that many people especially the sick were suffering more because of inadequate pharmaceutical services. Many patients could not access quality medication easily or access drugs to help in containing their deteriorating health issues in good time. Therefore, the institution decided to focus its synergies in providing the much needed pharmaceutical services with utmost diligence. It has been able to achieve a lot due to the globalization concept of operation that it adopted. The concept has enabled it to collaborate with other critical service providers, formulate strong working relationships with stakeholders, identify health risk, and execute effective testing of new medicine. This paper covers critical discussion about the company’s background, strategies of performance, where and where the company globalized, why it globalized, the global forces xxx, xxx and xxx.

Pfizer Inc

Pfizer Health Company is a renowned pharmaceutical service provider that started its operations in the year  1849. The pharmaceutical institution is located in New York, US, and its main research center is based in Groton (Rodengen, 1999). The company was funded with a core mission to be the leading pharmaceutical service provider dealing in medicine and vaccine supplies. The idea was to bridge the existing gap between the global market needs and the supply chain that has always been characterized by immense challenges. Since, its inception, the company has grown from strength to strength. It has been able to expand its business units to many locations, develop more infrastructural set ups, hire additional employees and embrace technology in its key service systems (Cockerham & Cockerham, 2010). The company enjoys a wider network of customers, suppliers, policy makers, medical specialists and other stakeholders because of its globalization initiatives. It has equally been able to double its performance over the years in terms of sales volumes and revenue capacity that signify the exemplary nature of its business model.

To serve the world better, the company’s management identified that it was proper for it to embrace globalization concept of service delivery. The management recognized that it is hard for the company to become globalized without pursuing globalization strategies. This prompted the adoption of the major globalization strategies that include advertisement, social factors, diversification, market penetration or differentiation and focus (Rodengen, 1999). The strategies are credited for the company’s successes as they ignited performance at various stages of operation. They brought in a new lease of life in the institution thereby enabling it to adopt universal techniques of service delivery. In particular, the initiatives undertaken enabled the company to expand its product range to cover the global needs. It developed new global portfolio of products that include medicines and vaccines including other important consumer health care products. The range of products include blockbuster drug, Lipitor, atonastatia, Zithromax antibiotic among others (Rodengen, 1999). The medicines and vaccines produced are meant to serve various medicine disciplines that include immunology, cardiology, oncologist and neurologist. These major health care disciplines focus on servicing critical medical needs of patients globally. This is because many diseases fall under the medical disciplines that are professionally operated.

When and where Pfizer globalized

As noted by Rodengen (1999), Pfizer is a global pharmaceutical company that was started with the aim of providing unmatched medical services globally. To achieve this objective, it was necessary for it to embrace globalization strategies. It was also necessary for it to adopt conventional health care practices that were driven by global concepts of business growth. This made the company to embark on high-powered deliberations on how to become a fully globalized entity. The discussions started in the year 1960s to 70s when the company was experiencing steady growth and high demand for  medical vaccines and drugs for various diseases (Rodengen, 1999). It is the same period when the company achieved its globalization goal. Pfizer expanded to new markets, adopted fresh ideas and medical best practices, and established the full needs of patients.

Evidently, the company’s ability to globalize the health services has transformed its status and performance in the sector globally. It is has become more responsive to the growing patient needs, it has become effective in service delivery and enhanced efficiency. The company’s services can be found in most nations globally and where it lacks physical presence there exist subsidiary or franchise entities operating on its behalf. The aspect makes its key health products reachable to many people globally without severe restrictions. It justifies the global philosophy that health care service providers are under expectation to operate under.

The move to embrace globalization started in earnest in the company’s US branch where its head office is located. The deliberations started there due to the frequent orders for medicine and vaccines from domestic and internal market was high. The increasing number of orders depicted that there was a great need for the company to go global to be able to serve the growing needs of the people. Another reason is to help in curbing the health problems that many individuals have based on the prevailing demand statistics of medical attention.

Why it globalized

From all indications, the company strived to globalize because of three major reasons. The first reason is to serve patients promptly irrespective of location. The company globalized to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which it serves its clients. For instance, it sought to guarantee real time response to the customers’ needs of medicine and vaccines. The major target group includes hospitals, other pharmacies and individual patients.

The second reason is the need to globalize health care services due to the environmental changes and relevance of globalization in expanding the market for health products. The need to expand the market is informed by the globalization standards that guide operation in diverse jurisdictions. Global health is considered an ultimate way of shaping destinies, help in identifying more risks and conduct new testing of medicines. The third reason why the company globalized is to learn from best global medical practices, generation of new ideas, expand services and be able to attract qualified medical specialists who are able to offer quality health care services in every location of service delivery.

The global forces that impacted the company to globalize or made it attractive to globalize

Organizations always experience immense pressure from various global forces to globalize or expand their operating scope. The forces determine decisions made in the organizations with respect to product portfolio, formation of new performance strategies and expansion or venturing into new markets (Connell, 2010). The forces also impose pressure on the interactive levels between companies, policy formulation and compliance with the prevailing market trends. Various forces that were domestic and international in nature fueled Pfizer Company’s push to globalization. The notable forces include the need to remain sustainable, social factors, the existence of the emerging markets, technology advancements and greater global connections. Other forces include the industrial revolution and cultural including religious ideologies.

Focus on sustainability

Pfizer’s globalization quest was informed by the need to remain sustainable in the market. The company wanted to remain profitable while serving the public effectively for a long time (Connell, 2010). Remaining sustainable according to the projections in place could not be possible without going global and ensuring proper coordination of activities between stakeholders that include manufacturing industries and the government. Going global was also one way of ensuring the achievement of the company’s stamp of approval by the potential customers globally. No company can operate effectively and record exemplary performance without the global stamp of approval. With the stamp, it is assure of expanding its market base and gaining acceptance by numerous number of customers.

Technology advancement

The advancement in technology resulted into the company’s strong quest to globalize apart from the idea being fueled by technology-enabled systems. The company was keen of exploring or taking advantage of the enhanced communication platforms and advertising networks such as TVs, radios and internet. The tools were very essential and instrumental in the company’s growth plan from the time it sought to globalize (Cohen, 2013). Indeed, many institutions were motivated to expand due to the technology enabled systems and Pfizer never wanted to remain behind, as it would have lost relevance.

Emerging markets

The pressure from the emerging markets contributed greatly to the globalization of Pfizer Company. The emerging markets created immense competition and need for adoption of new health care provision strategies (Cockerham & Cockerham, 2010). Many people were looking for quality Medicare services during the period the company was pursuing globalization strategy. The new markets created strong rivalry forces that countering was not easy unless global strategies were adopted. Therefore, the company focused on reaching out to the emerging markets and expanding its supplier base by going global through expansion of manufacturing industries and using the e-technology to address customers’ needs. The company’s focus was to address continually customer needs within the shortest time possible.

Social factors

Social factors that include changes in social structures, lifestyle patterns of the global population, buying patterns, consumer lifestyle, social orientation, cultural differences and social status are major aspects that influence the need for health services (Connell, 2010). The factors pushed the company to expand to be able to serve the needs of people in diverse locations since social trends depicted a higher need for medical services by majority globally. Achieving globalization at the time was a strategy to ensure that it establishes well in most settings to facilitate its easy access when need arises.

Nature of the Domestic Market

The domestic market for pharmaceutical products in America was in high demand of pharmaceutical products specifically Vitamin C and antibiotics (Bennett & Tomossy, 2006). Thus, there was a high demand for the se products from 1900 to the 1960. The cause of this high level of demand was mainly due to the First World War, the Cold War and the Second World War. There was high demand of Vitamin C to keep the population healthy while antibiotics were in demand to fight against bacterial infections by the American army and the population as well. At the time, only small advancement in manufacturing antibiotics had been made and when Pfizer came up with an easier way of manufacturing Penicillin, there was a high demand of the drug. The nature of the market can be discussed as below;

Competitiveness in the pharmaceutical domestic market – During the 1950s, there were a few companies that were manufacturing pharmaceutical products in America. At this period, World War II was ongoing there was a very high demand of antibiotics for the American soldiers in the battlefield. Pfizer was by then producing substantial amounts of penicillin and therefore there was the need to initiate offices in allied countries to help in the distribution of the drug. In addition to that, Pfizer was using Deep-Tank fermentation process for the production of large quantities of penicillin and therefore they needed to globalize their laboratories to the countries participating in the World War II for efficient delivery.

The lack of stiff competition in the American Pharmaceutical industry gave Pfizer a breakthrough to the domestic market. Since its inception, the majority of the population in America, because of the drug’s affordability, preferred Pfizer’s pharmaceutical products. Sparke (2013) argues that this property enabled Pfizer to be a monopoly in the pharmaceutical products and the enormous profits they realized from the domestic market were pumped into the expansion of the company.

Moreover, the methods of production used by Pfizer were exemplary enabling them to produce high quantity of goods that were of high quality. This is evidence when Doctor Richard Pasternack came up with a method of producing Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) without fermentation. The company could manufacture large quantities of Vitamin C and since Vitamin C was in high demand for the healthy war soldiers, there was an increasingly high demand for the product  resulting to the need for expansion. In addition to that, Pfizer Inc. came up with the deep-tank fermentation method of manufacturing penicillin in large quanitities, which enabled it to get potential market from external countries that were participating in the World War II (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2007).  However, it is imperative to note that, the success of Pfizer in the American domestic market was because of a combination of several factors that pushed the company to expand its operations.

The Structure of the Global Market

The Global market, during the 1950s, required large amounts of pharmaceutical products in preparation for World War II. Many wounded soldiers who required antibiotics for their treatment but at that time, the supply of antibiotics was running short. This was because most pharmaceutical companies were relying on the outdated procedures of manufacturing antibiotics through extraction of antibiotics from the soil.  For instance, the Nystatin antibiotic was manufactured through extracting Streptomyces noursei from Virginia soils (Bennett & Tomossy, 2006). This process could not sustain the increasing demand of antibiotics and therefore there was a large potential market for pharmaceutical products outside America especially from the allied countries.

Since Pfizer Inc. was able to produce large quantities of penicillin through the Deep-Tank Fermentation process, it was able to export this commodity to the foreign market. Extensive research of antibiotics by Pfizer’s doctors led the Penicillin drug that was highly demanded in Second World War. Allied countries with America in the World War II ordered antibiotics from the United States and an external potential market was created. Since Pfizer was the monopoly in the domestic market, it was forced to expand its operations beyond America to the other allied countries such as Brazil where it opened up its offices (Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2007).

At this period, more advancements of antibiotics were done in the United Kingdom and India and thus a stiff competition was created in the global market. However, Pfizer products were less costly thus attracting more customers globally. There was a large potential market for customers who could afford these pharmaceutical products hence more branches were opened up in Germany, China, Japan and Taiwan to cater for the large market demand. By the 21st century, Pfizer had already established firm roots in these countries.

Areas of Health That Enabled the Globalization of the Pfizer Foundation

It is very clear that globalization of Pfizer was due to the high demand for pharmaceutical products around the globe. Hence, countries, which did not participate in World War II, did not have urgent needs to the pharmaceutical products. These countries were at lower risks of contracting bacterial infections and therefore there was less demand for antibiotics in those particular countries. This created two different groups; a group that needed immediate pharmaceutical products and a group that pharmaceutical products were not in very high demand (Sparke, 2013). The group that was in urgent need of pharmaceutical products initiated the forces behind the globalization of Pfizer Inc. Today, the two groups are still being observed. In developed countries, people are still struggling to get primary health care while in developed countries; the basic health situation is beyond primary health care. In developed countries, People are in more demand of secondary health care and there is less demand for primary health care.

The need of pharmaceutical products in the 1950s was also influenced by the need to come up with new medicines regarding antibiotics for the World War II. This is because; the primary aim at that time was to get control of the aftermath that was caused by the World War II. In today’s world, there is more testing of medicines that can cure viruses. Bacteria are no longer a threat but doctors are still looking for efficient antibiotics to cure bacteria. More advanced bacteria and viruses have been identified and there is more demand for pharmaceutical products that can cure them. However, not all customers can afford them. Some of these drugs are so expensive that the can they can only be afforded a small percentage of the current world’s population.

Strategies Pfizer used to expand its operations

Globalization is a noble idea whose success is yarned for in most organizations. It transforms how activities are done and performance levels including the quantity of items that are delivered to customers at particular times. Every organization that aspires to withstand competitive pressure in the global health sector has no choice but to embrace it holistically (International, 2011). The need for adoption is to pave way for increased response to customer needs. However, before the process of globalization is started, a number of  factors have to be considered. Similarly, relevant strategies have to be put in place and adhered to from the preamble stages of process implementation to completion.

The companies must understand the environment they are operating in to establish the eminent risks, the needs of the people and the prevailing opportunities worth exploring. They should also execute detailed feasibility study to establish their strengths and weaknesses (International, 2011). This helps in shaping decision on whether to pursue the strategy or not. The analysis assist in ascertaining whether the company has adequate resources to enable it finance its activities and remain sustainable. The other aspects that require understanding include culture and cultural practices of customers, buying behavior, consumer behavior towards the products on offer and the competitive edge or nature in the market.

In particular, the first strategy that Pfizer used in conquering new markets or becoming globalized is the execution of a detailed internal and external analysis. The company executed in-depth evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses that facilitated proper identification of what it could achieve (Ismail, 2011). The second strategy entailed identification or understanding of behaviors and culture of the potential customers in the new markets. This was done in several nations including but not limited to Mexico, Belgium, Cuba, UK, Canada and panama. The move helped the company to decide on the appropriate advertisement and product distribution techniques to use. It also helped in the mobilization of health care resources such as diagnosis machines and employees (Ismail, 2011). Understanding of the cultural practices of the societies gave the management the opportunity to plan and allow for the establishment of a centralized expansion zone. The aspect allowed effective coordination of activities and hiring of staff who are qualified to discharge the requisite duties at the new stations.

Likewise, the company took time and identified the level f international competition including the company’s competitive edge in the industry. Its management recognized fully that gong into a new market without proper disclosure of the competitive advantage is disastrous. Competitive advantage must be established given that its absence exposes business to severe performance struggles (Ismail, 2011). The move allowed Pfizer Company to gain traction and effective connection with customers.

Another strategy the company adopted was the use of strategic partners in diverse locations. The company expanded its networks through local institutions in diverse nations. The institutions accepted to act on its behalf by selling its much valued medicine and vaccines to customers (International, 2011). The local entities also contributed to the company’s success by creating awareness of its major products amongst the potential buyers. The strategy enabled the pharmaceutical service provider to spread its branches even to remote areas globally. The new branches created more opportunities for growth and economic development .

Many people value and credit the company for its globalization initiative. They are happy that the initiative has consistently enabled them to access quality pharmaceutical services in good time when need arises. Various health complications no longer pose severe fear to most individuals because relevant drugs or vaccine can be accessed greasily. The company also used technology enabled systems and various media platforms to access the global market. The technology used includes advertisement on TVs and radios including the internet. The platforms helped in creating awareness about the company’s operations and key products. They also enlightened the people about the major health services it offers and the importance of the services inn human life. Such information became helpful since it attracted many people towards accepting the company and embracing its products compared to other entities.

According to Roy (2009), Pfizer Company embraced porters generic model strategies to gain access into the new markets globally. The strategies under the model were suitable since they present requisite market expansion and awareness creation incentives. They ensure that an entity executes its marketing activities efficiently and effectively. The main strategies used by Pfizer pharmaceutical company were diversification strategy, differentiation and focus strategies. First, diversification strategy was used to enable the company penetrate new and different markets with ease. The company achieved this by diversifying its product range depending on variable factors that include need, buyers’ income levels among other parameters (Roy, 2009). For instance, the company did not introduce its medicines and vaccines at the same time in some markets. This aspect was characterized especially in the markets that were deemed competitive. In such markets, it entered using the low-end products or items that were not in sufficient supply by the rivals like vaccines. After gaining inroads in the markets is when real medicine was introduced to the people. The strategy is attributable to facilitating the company’s access to markets within the Euro-zone, some Asian nations including African countries.

Focus strategy is a noble market entry concept that the company embraced to the fullest. The strategy was effectively used by focusing synergies in serving certain markets and market segments. The company first executed proper market segmentation that assisted in knowing the particular needs of each segment (Roy, 2009). The segmentation allowed the management to know where to target with product or service. It ensured accuracy in addressing the needs of the people especially patients given that they got relevant services courtesy of the effective segmentation. Certainly, the concept fueled the company’s quest to execute the globalization process with a clear focus on the price that in turn influences the people’s lives effectively.

Additionally, Pfizer Company used market differentiation strategy to gain access to new markets and become the world’s pace setter in research and medicine distribution. Market differentiation enabled the company to service each market depending on the prevailing needs and competition. Markets with low health care needs were not heavily invested on as compared to those with higher needs. Highly competitive markets were also not flooded with products at once. The entry was systematic and it started with unique services in that market. The idea was to avert the possible wastage of resources due to low returns that could be realized in the markets.


The way the world is being divided into areas of health and areas where people are face more risk of illness

The drive to globalize has resulted into more health centers forming clear divisions or segments through which they operate. The division is majorly based on the area of the health issue and challenges that people face such as the risk of illness, areas where new medicine is tested including where they are available (Klug, 2006). The segmentation criteria is helps patients to understand or know where to find certain type of medicine, know where they are tested and how to manage various risk situations. Similarly, the criteria helps health care institutions to understand the health issues patients face hence provide relevant solution. It also allows them to decide effectively on the type of drugs or medicine to test and supply in the market for usage. As noted, globalization is a concept that is characterized by constant circulation of products and services. The circulation is done between nations or countries and it based on the efficiency criteria’s that are structured.

To date, the practice still continues in the health sector. Institutions in the sector globally are constantly striving to ensure that their goods and services are in good circulation (Klug, 2006). They are also keen to foster their acceptance and reception by customers in the market. They circulate medicines, health care professionals, vaccines, medical equipment among other incentives. The objective of the program is to bring health care services closer to people and enable individuals globally to access quality medical care at any location. People can even move to foreign nations to secure the precious services based on the design of the program. It suits movement of people and transfer of medical equipment including staff to where services are necessary. The current trends in the medical sector show clearly how hospitals and various medical service providers conduct globalization programs (Klug, 2006). Most of them organize free consultation and treatment days to give patients the opportunity to get professional treatment and advice on device health issues such as diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure and other chronic illnesses. The mobile provision of the health services has equally resulted in enabling individuals to access health insurance resources efficiently. The schemes allow them to access medical attention at any location globally once covered by the universal insurance schemes provided.


In summary, the globalization of Pfizer foundation was due to the characteristics of the domestic and the global market. The domestic market created a high demand allowing the company to expand and as it expanded, the amount of products manufactured escalated to a level that it was able to sustain the domestic market and still sell to the global market. It can be noted that World War I and II were the major contributing markets for these pharmaceutical products due to the health of the soldiers who were involved in the war. Thus, it can be concluded that, high demand of pharmaceutical products, extensive research and a large crowd of potential customers were the contributing factors to the globalization of Pfizer Inc.


Bennett, B., & Tomossy, G. F. (2006). Globalization and health: Challenges for health law and bioethics. Dordrecht: Springer.

Cohen, I. G. (2013). The globalization of health care: Legal and ethical issues. Oxford [UK: Oxford University Press.

Connell, J. (2010). Migration and the globalisation of health care: The health worker exodus?. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Cockerham, G. B., & Cockerham, W. C. (2010). Health and globalization. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. E. (2007). Strategic management: Competitiveness and globalization : concepts. Mason, OH [etc.: South-Western

International, A. A. C. S. B. (2011). Globalization of Management Education: Changing International Structures, Adaptive Strategies, and the Impact on Institutions. Bradford: Emerald Group Pub.

Ismail, M. A. M. (2011). Globalization and new international public works agreements in developing countries: An analytical perspective. Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate Pub.

Klug, M. (2006). Market entry strategies in Eastern Europe in the context of the European Union:

Mennen, M. (2010). Innovation & Growth – A case study of Pfizer. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Roy, D. (2009). Strategic foresight and Porter’s five forces: Towards a synthesis. München: GRIN.

Rodengen, J. L. (1999). The legend of Pfizer. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Write Stuff Syndicate, Inc.

Sparke, M. (2013). Introducing globalization: Ties, tension, and uneven integration. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

APA Format Essay Example: Cognitive Development

Ways in which Cognitive Development Influences other areas of child Development

Cognitive development is very critical to the development of a child as it either accelerates or decelerates the development of a child in other areas of development. For instance, the intelligence of a child is largely determined by the cognitive development of that particular child . For instance, the large volumes of information found in the internet allow children to read them in a short span of time. As the children read, they are able to extra think and reason as compared to when reading a textbook. This increases their mental activities and abilities thus boosting their ability to locate information from the storage part of the brain (Jaffe, “Rewired: Cognitive Development in the Digital Age”).

Apart from intelligence, the cognitive development of a child as well affects other areas such as the ability to multi-task. According to Oakley (2014), children who have grown in the internet era have a higher ability to multitask as compared to children who have no access to internet. This is because children in the digital age have been able to multitask by texting and responding to online messages as they study. What is even shocking is that, research has indicated that students who multitask while studying could produce the same results as the students who did not multitask. This was due to the reason that their brain was able to under plastic deformation where it changed its structure and wiring to adapt to the new environment. Cognitive development was responsible for the changes that occurred to their brains

From the two discussed ways, intelligence is apparently observed at the tender age of the child as opposed to multitasking. This is because; the intelligence of a child can be noticed by the way the child responds to the environment. For instance, they may be asking curious question related to the environment in which they are in indicating that their reasoning ability is higher than we expected (Oakley, 2014). Moreover, the child might perform exemplary well in their kindergarten school level portraying high intelligence level. On the other hand, the ability to multitask may not necessarily be observed at the tender age of the child since the brain a child is not fully developed. The child tends to focus on a single task at a time hence they would not have the ability to multitask.

Comparing and contrasting theories of cognitive development

Many theories have evolved about the process of cognitive development from childhood to adulthood.  For instance, Jean Piaget’s theory suggests that cognitive development takes place in four distinct stages (Shaffer and Kipp, 2013).  The first stage is the sensorimotor stage which occurs between birth and when the child is two years of age. This is followed by the preoperational reasoning stage occurring between 3-7 years, then the concrete operational reasoning stage between the age of 8-13 years and finally the formal operation reasoning stage, which transpires at the age of above 13 years old.

Stiles (2012) insists that this theory is similar to Lev vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development in that the both agree that cognitive development is a gradual process that occurs in the brain of the child. However, the two theories have some differences. For example, Paigets emphasizes on stages involved shaping the cognitive development while vygotsky insists on cultural background to have a higher effect on shaping the development.

Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development can be applied at home where a child grows up in home that has a fireplace. At the sensorimotor stage, the child would not be interested even if the fire is put off while at the second stage, the child will be able to think that the fire only lights up and goes off by its self. In the third stage of development, the child will realize that the fire can be light up by a matchstick and can be put off by water by will not understand why. In the last stage, the child will now be able to understand why the fire can be put on by a matchstick and be put off by water. This is quite different from the Vygotsky’s theory where the child where a child brought up in a home embracing his own culture would perform their homes chores like washing utensils and cooking better than a child brought up in a culture different from their origin.

In addition, Paiget theory can be observed even in the school environment. A child would not be interested whether their pen would write or not. In their second stage, they would think that the pen only writes when they want it to while in the third stage, the child would understand that pen writes when it is filled with ink but they would not know why. In the final stage, the child would realize that pen would write when with ink since the ink flows down to the ballpoint. According to Vygotsky, a child would understand better things that they were taught from their cultural background than things that they were taught from a foreign culture.


Cognitive development is a process that occurs gradually and theorughtout the lifespan of an individual. It helps us in developing other many broad areas of our development such as intelligence and the ability to multitask. As discussed above, there are many theories that try to explain how cognitive development takes place such as the Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky’s theories.



Jaffe, E. (2015). Rewired: Cognition in the Digital Age. Retrieved from;

Oakley, L., (2014). Cognitive Development. Psychology Press.

Shaffer, D., Kipp, K., (2013). Developmental Psychology: Childhood and Adolescence. Cengage Learning Press.

Business Proposal for Professional Communication

Business Proposal for Professional Communication

Executive Summary

Global business is changing and competitors are spread across all areas within the globe. In order to gain an edge companies are having to come up with proper models that are unique to improve the  level of service to their customers. In the banking sector where customers are in most cases in close contact with the employees it is important to  be equipped with the best skills to ensure that the level of service and handling of customers and other stakeholders surpasses other competitors in the market. This proposal highlights the different methods that will help in increasing the level of personal communication at the workplace through integrating the employees through individual models that will enhance their growth. The proposal suggests ways of improving education, training, personal development and professional development that will all work towards developing better personal communication skills for the workers. Although the company is large and has branches in different parts of the world the proposal comes up with methods that are critical in addressing all the issues in different areas all over the world. It is a comprehensive and finalized document that offers insight on important aspects of the entity.


A company in the Banking sector has to handle and equip itself with proper tools to ensure that it attracts and retains its customers. If one was to think that is difficult when operating in a single country, it is even more competitive when operating in different countries. The level of competition and the requirements needed stiffens. It therefore, becomes harder to connect and instill a good understanding with the customers thereby, offering no competitive edge in the market. The bank becomes redundant since it does not generate new models or customers in the market. Professional communicationis one of the main methods and attributes that a company can use to communicate effectively and raise the number of customers in a competitive market.

Every company needs to equip its employees with traits and values of professional communication whether it is within the specific department or course or not. Every employee should have the basics of professional communication to help in engaging customers and creating a link between the Bank and the customers in the field. There are different departments in the company but they are all connected and reflect an image of the company. The employees interact with the customers and with proper training and education on professional communication they can use their positions in the company to attract and retain the employees. This proposal aims to highlight some of the areasthat can be used to improve the models and approaches in professional communication thereby strategically placing the company as a competitive entity globally with the case of First Century Bank.

Career Advancement and Growth in Professional Communications

Professional communication is a relatively new field therefore the number of people who have managed to professionally study and advance in the career are few. Although it is slowly gaining traction it has not been one of the most coveted courses or models in the past. The company therefore needs to encourage its employees to pursue the course. Depending on the level of education the company needs to invest some part of the fee to encourage more people to pursue the course that should split proportionally depending on the qualification of the employees. The management team in particular should be strongly advised on pursuing the course to ensure that they can act as a model for other workers within the organization. Branch managers and other leaders in the bank need to dedicate their time and resources to the course (Guffey and Loewy, 2012). The results from the course are evident through the approaches and methods that will be implemented by the individuals in making sound decisions for the company. Since the company may not have the tools and attributes to convince the workers to pursue the course we are prepared to host workshops and functions on sensitization and education on the same in the company.


Education is one of the main pillars that can be used to improve the level of understanding and implementation of different models within the company. Every employee has been strictly scrutinized and taken through a series of background tests to ascertain their level of education before being hired at the company. There are different programs depending on the level of profession and studies that each employee has had. The programs are tailored to meet specific needs since the level of communication and skills required for a banker are not similar to those of an engineer. Depending on the level of education and the willingness of the employee to take the course there are programs that range from diploma to Doctoral level (Guffey and Loewy, 2012). In addition, there are executive programs for the managers and board of directors who are interested in the program. These courses are critical in improving the approaches and interaction between the employees at the company and other stakeholders including the customers.

Since the company is large and has a lot of employees the program would have to be rolled out in phases. The first phase would have to be from the people who have already made professional communication their main profession. These would be helpful in disseminating useful and critical information to other workers. The other departments would also have to be handled each department at a time to ensure that there is no overlapping of the course with the duties and activities of the employees (Epstein and Hundert, 2002). For the employees who are already assigned to different countries abroad they would have to study the program in batches where some of the people learn and give the information to the others. On the other hand, the use of online media is also one of the most effective ways since they can follow all the classes and lessons through their computers (Kain and Wardle, 2005). Additionally, organizing workshops and seminars where they are taken through a series of events and models is also critical. In order to ensure that all members of the workgroup have taken in all the studies and information disseminated seminars and workshops are critical in sharing and discussing different impacts of the course.


Training is critical in developing and nurturing the ideals and approaches that the company needs in future. The company is targeting to become a global company therefore, it needs to invest in the best models and approaches that are relevant and critical in achieving the set targets. One of the approaches that the company may use is soliciting and benchmarking some of the training methods used by other companies (Tompkins, 2005). The company has a relevant and viable recruitment and training programs that are unique to the business that the company is engaging in. However, successful companies have realized the importance of professional communication and are making it part of the company recruitment models and approaches. The models applied by other companies should therefore be  assessed for their viability and applied in the training methods for the company. These methods and application criteria require advice from a qualified professional who has taken the course and understood its fundamental aspects within similar businesses. Professional communication should therefore, be part of the training process since all employees need to be equipped with specific skills and training on the same (Sharma and Patterson, 1999). It should therefore be embedded as part of the  human resource application and modelling before hiring any new employees into the company.

On the other hand, it is  important to ensure that the employees who are hired to work as professional communication trainees or professional have already gone through the necessary training. The potential employees should be trained on individual approaches and models used within the company. There is a chance for the company to invest in the best employees in the field so that they can impart their skills to other employees within the company. These are critical aspects that need to be addressed before making new appointments especially in positions of leadership within the department (Guffey and Loewy, 2012). Organizing workshops and seminars where employees can be taken through the training is also one of the most effective methods. The training program in this case is tailored to the requirements of the banking institution and its strategic goals and objectives. The seminars and workshops need to draw people from different departments especially the leaders who can deliver the same message to their workers or members of the team. Training for a new model is sensitive since it defines the application and acclimatization of the people with the systems going forward (Dodd, 2007). Therefore, one should ensure that they invest in the best models and resources to increase the level of coordination and modelling between employees at the workplace. If an employee has the set requirements and models that are necessary to make critical decisions it is easier to understand and adopt the new attributes of professional communication in future. Training of all employees regardless of whether they want to pursue the course in future or not is therefore, critical to develop better qualities thereby increasing the level of competitive edge within the company.

Since there are different branches and a high number of employees that need to be trained it is important to implement an inclusive process that includes members from different branches. Conducting a randomized sampling method is one of the  models that can be used to increase the level of understanding and engage employees within the company. There are different approaches  that can be used to reach out to the employees, one of them being creating a hub or a center where employees can learn these approaches and models accordingly. Since most of the branches are currently spread within United States, it is easier to have a localized area where employees can be taken through the programs and then deliver the same tools and traits to others at the workplace (Kain and Wardle, 2005). The program that will be implemented will be born out of the current syllabus that is used in most universities and colleges to teach the same. These are relevant programs but they will also be tailored to meet the requirements of the company. Depending on the amount of people who will be interested in learning professional communication the approach used to train the employees will be dynamic to meet individual needs and approaches. In addition, it is however recommended that the company invests and sensitizes all people to take part in the basic training for the company to gain from the approaches that have been instituted.

Personal Development

Motivation at the workplace is the cornerstone of getting the best from the employees at the workplace. It is therefore important to ensure that individuals are given proper platforms that are meant to increase the potential and knowledge in future. Personal development is one of the fundamental aspects that employees deem necessary when evaluating a specific job opening (Pan, 2004). Therefore, depending on the number of people who want to pursue a professional communications career they can be given a chance to pursue these careers either as a part time or full time course.

The course is fairly new therefore, most of the professionals in the career have trained recently and do not have all the fundamental aspects needed to be experts in the field. In this case therefore it is important to advertise and give all willing applicants a chance to apply for the field. However, this has to follow a sensitization campaign where the employees are educated on the  importance and application of the course. There are different approaches that are used to ensure that individuals are given a chance to pursue the course. As aforementioned, the company needs to give the people incentives to pursue the course. The interested parties need to be assured of retaining their positions and salaries while pursuing the course. It is also critical to pay part of full fees for the course to encourage more people to enroll into the new course. Professional communication is a professional course that is aimed at enhancing the skills of individuals within the bank. The bank should give people a chance to make a decision based on their own will but all the necessary information should be available for individuals to make informed decisions.

Personal interest

Personal interest is similar to personal development since they are innate and can only be measured through the utility and satisfaction that individuals derive from the course. However, the company should be prepared to implement structures that are meant to encourage the workers to pursue the course. One of the crucial factors is giving people ample information on the importance of the course for their development and future capabilities within the company. Employees need to understand that although the course is fairly new it is becoming a necessity among most companies. There are different applications of the course, therefore having fundamental and basic concepts of the course is an added advantage for the employee (Dodd, 2007). However, the company should also examine the impact of the investment models and approaches that they have used to enhance personal interest for the course. One of the methods is through giving a chance and investing in the first volunteers to pursue the course. Since it is a good and applicable course in the banking sector, the difference between employees who take the course and others within the company will be perfect indicators to others of the importance of the course. The course takes the usual university and college programs therefore the company needs to know that there are application dates for the course. Personal interest can also be enhanced through giving the leaders the initiative to take up the course first and make the best decisions from the specific models that are given.


Companies need to change their models and assessment of professional communication to make the best approaches and judgment that is critical to development of employees accordingly. In First Century Bank although the model has not been vibrant other companies within the banking sector have adopted the same models. It is therefore important to ensure that the individual applications needed to sensitize and improve the awareness among the employees are implemented. Education, personal development and training are critical in developing the best models therefore companies need to make the most appropriate and actionable approach to make a sound decision. The management team should assess the different methods that should be applied in making the appropriate decisions and take the best structure to implement a working model.


Dodd, C. H. (2007). Managing business and professional communication. Allyn & Bacon.

Epstein, R. M., & Hundert, E. M. (2002). Defining and assessing professional competence. Jama287(2), 226-235.

Guffey, M. E., & Loewy, D. (2012). Essentials of business communication (9th ed.). New             York,NY: Cengage Learning

Kain, D., & Wardle, E. (2005). Building context: Using activity theory to teach about genre in multi-major professional communication courses.Technical Communication Quarterly14(2), 113-139.

Pan, Y. (2004). Professional communication in international settings. ULIS.

Sharma, N., & Patterson, P. G. (1999). The impact of communication effectiveness and service quality on relationship commitment in consumer, professional services. Journal of services marketing13(2), 151-170.

Tompkins, C. J. (2005). Personal and Professional Development: Making Choices and Becoming Educated. Industrial Management, 27(3), 18.

A four paragraph essay sample: Letter to President Pierce, 1855

Want some inspiration for writing a 4 paragraph essay? Here is an example on Letter to President Pierce, 1855.

The “Letter to President Pierce, 1855” addresses the cultural differences between native tribes and white immigrants pertaining land and natural environment. In particular, the letter highlights the significance of land to the white immigrants and native tribes where the former puts emphasis on commercial development while the latter prefers preserving the natural ecosystem. Author use different tones to convey their message to their audience. A tone can be used to entertain or to express the gravity of an issue aimed at provoking an in-depth scrutiny of the issue raised by the author. In the piece, “ Letter to President Pierce, 1855” the author Chief Seattle adopts  candid and belligerent tone aimed at capturing the attention of the President and the entire nation on land issues and environment conservation.

To start with, Chief Seattle provides a truthful analysis of the differences in the value attached to land and natural environment between the white immigrants and native tribes. In fact, Chief Seattle starts the letter by saying “We know that the white man does not understand our ways (Chied Seattle 1).” He goes further to outline the fact the white immigrants attach monetary value to land with little regard to the cultural significance of the land. In this case, cultural significance includes the relation and respect given to the dead. According to Chief Seattle, the white man does not respect the departed souls thus, after establishing building and industries in a particular area, he moves on to another undeveloped piece of land. In this particular instance, Chief Seattle refers to the rapid industrialization and urbanization that took place in the late mid-nineteenth century through to the early twentieth century. In addition, Chief Seattle also highlights the difference in the urban or the city environment and rural settings. In particular, he indicates that the white men do not appreciate the cool ambience of the rural settings. However, he claims that the Indian prefers clean air characterized by smells of pines and rain which is also critical for his survival and that of other animals and plants. Undoubtedly, Chief Seattle raises an important issue, pollution that is a pertinent issue in modern times.  In fact, he indicates the “white man” will eventually choke in his own waste. Indeed pollution has become a serious problem in the modern environment.

Conversely, Chief Seattle also comes across as belligerent or combatant in the letter to the President. In particular, he uses several terms that highlight his abrasive nature. In the opening paragraph, the Chief describes the white immigrant as “a stranger who comes in the night and takes from the land whatever he needs.” Without a doubt, the Chief refers to the white immigrant as a thief, which highlights his disgust with his actions. He also refers to the native tribes as savages to stress the differences between the native tribes and the white immigrants. In fact, Chief Seattle refers to his people as savages, which could be because of attitude and interactions with the white immigrants. Indeed, the native tribes placed emphasis on cultural beliefs and practices. The native tribes had not accessed formal education, which could have contributed to their frosty relations with the European immigrants in the United States. Therefore, the consistence reference of native savages could be a way of the Chief reminding the President of the attitude that the white men had towards members of the indigenous tribes in America. In addition, Chief Seattle expresses discontent with the cities that the white men have built on their land. Specifically, he says that the sight of the modern developments causes him discomfort. Obviously, the Chief and his people have not accepted and accommodated the white men on their land as the latter occupy their land illegally. Moreover, the Chief goes to belittle the developments made by the white immigrants and indicates that they will be source of their destruction. He indicates that children of the native tribes shall outlive the extravagance and irresponsible behavior perpetuated by the white men, as they shall stick to their cultural practices. The Chief points at the constant conflicts that would more often than not result in bloody wars as the native tribes tried to chase the white men from their lands. However, the white men would defeat the native tribes because of their sophisticated weaponry and tactics.

In conclusion, Chief Seattle’s letter to the President is both truthful but at the same time comes across as combatant that expresses the bad blood between the white men and the native tribes. Indeed, the Chief wanted to catch the attention of the President and other citizens and express the seriousness of the land issues in the country. Of course, the confrontational tone indicates the native tribes are ready to take measures to defend their lands and stop the unwarranted interference by the white men.

Work Cited

“Letter to the President, 1855”, Chief Seattle, 1855. Web 5 March 2016.

Here is an example of a two paragraph essay.

A 2 Paragraph Essay Sample: Plea Bargaining

Want some inspiration for writing a 2 paragraph essay? Here is an example on plea bargaining.

Plea bargaining is a core element of the criminal justice system in the United States. Plea bargains allow defendants to turn in a guilty plea to get sentences that are more lenient (Lynch 22). Prosecutors play a central role in plea-bargaining, as they are responsible for convincing criminals to accept the terms of the plea bargain. Some advantages of plea bargaining include easing the workload for prosecutors and judges, reducing overcrowding in courts and that it is economical to the defendant in respect of finances and time consumed by a trial (FindLaw 1). Notably, the main beneficiaries of plea bargaining are judges, prosecutors and defendants which raises the question regarding the place of the victim whose interests are supposedly at the heart of the criminal justice system.

Undeniably, plea bargaining has set a bad trend in the criminal justice system by neglecting the interests of the victims. Indeed, a victim has high expectations that the justice system provides the platform where he or she seeks legal redress for crimes that violate her rights as guaranteed under the Constitution. However, when the system turns into justice in a “commodity” that can be subjected to bargaining, it negates the very law that it is supposed to uphold. Obviously, the victims do not get justice for the crimes committed against them as the criminals get away with lighter sentences. Although there is the possibility of acquittal when a case goes trial, the prosecutor in conjunction with the investigating authorities should do a thorough job in gathering and collecting evidence. Consequently, they are in a position to present a watertight case against the defendant. Certainly, plea bargaining offers the prosecutor and investigating authorities a way of avoiding the illustrious work of gathering evidence against the defendant. Of course, this means that they are not discharging their duties effectively and meeting public expectations.

Works Cited

Lynch, Timothy. “The Case Against Plea Bargaining.” Cato Institute, n.d. Web 5 March 2016

“Plea Bargains: In Depth.” FindLaw, n.d. Web 5 March 2016.

Comparison and contrasting aspects of the higher education system in England and Kenya


Education is a powerful tool that influences the development of social skills, intellectual prowess of individuals and reasoning capacity of people. It is a major driver of socio-economic development in all nations. This explains why every nation including Kenya and UK strives to develop strong education and sustainable education system. According to Deloitte (2015), every nation has an education plan that is aimed at promoting quality learning. The nations are keen in developing creative and innovative young people through the systematic learning processes in schools and universities. The nations also aim at nurturing talents and developing professionals in diverse fields of operations or subject areas.

Over the years, provision of quality education has been a major concern of many nations globally. The global leaders have always developed solid measures to promote universal education to ensure that everyone achieve the basic right. Despite the spirited attempts to provide quality education especially higher education, nations are facing numerous challenges in achieving the goal. The challenges include but not limited to funding issues, lack of learning materials, poor learning conditions, poor governance and inadequate research funds. It is necessary for nations to handle or mitigate the issues highlighted to ensure the realization of the educational objectives.

This paper gives a comparative analysis of the higher education system in Kenya and UK. The two nations run education systems with the aim of equipping their citizens and the entire generation with pertinent skills necessary for socio-economic development (Deloitte, 2015). The two nations have recorded tremendous achievement in their quest to enhance access to quality higher education. They have expanded their education systems thereby allowing more student admission and enrollment to pursue various courses.

Despite the progress, the two nations still have gaps to cover in terms of funding within their education system to enable them achieve the higher learning aspirations of their citizens (Clark, 2015). Comparatively, Kenya has not achieved much as compared to UK that is one of the developed nation. Kenya face serious challenges that require mitigation compared to UK. This is evident by the difference in number of students who join higher education learning institutions in both nations. UK records a higher number than Kenya where the opportunity is accorded to the elite. The level of unfair access to higher education in Kenya is far much higher than access to higher education in the UK.

The comparative funding of higher education between Kenya and UK

Indeed, the higher education system in Kenya and UK is facing serious funding issues. The funding problem and disparity is a major challenge in Kenya as compared to UK. This challenge is real despite the tremendous achievements that have been recorded interns of expansion of student admission in higher learning institutions and access (Clark, 2015). In Kenya, student admission and access to higher education has increased by over 20%. In the current year, new admissions is expected to expand to over 26% while the UKs higher learning system has expanded by over 78% being a country that has well educated generation.

According to the statistics from the Kenyan government and price water house coopers, the higher education system in Kenya faces funding and policy challenges, inadequate research funds, poor course development and higher levels of corruption (KPMG, 2014). The challenges impede sustainable and access to higher education in the nation. Many students cannot access higher learning institutions and receive quality education due to the challenges as compared to the UK system (Johnson, 2016). Statistics indicate that more students qualify to join the higher learning institutions but the problem of capacity that is attributable to low funding is hindering more admission by the joint admission board.

The Kenya government only sets aside less than 1% of its entire budget to the higher education system. Ion the financial year of 2014/2015, higher education loans board that funds students received only 63million dollars as compared to the UKs higher education funding council for England (HEFCE) that was allocated 26.3 billion pounds over the same period (Johnson, 2016). This aspect depicts clearly that the UK government allocate more resources towards higher education compared to the Kenyan government. This in turn results in more students acquiring professional qualifications in UK than in Kenya.

The poor higher education in Kenya is presenting serious repercussions to the education sector. The low funding means that only a few students can access higher education and become resourceful to the nation. It also means that the higher education system will continue to have limited capacity in terms of quality training personnel, infrastructure and research extension activities (Clark, 2015). With these limitations, the learning environment is always contaminated thereby deprive students the opportunity to have best experiences as compared to the UK system. Most higher learning entities especially the over 22 public universities lack funds to expand their classrooms, lecture theaters, build and stock libraries and develop well-equipped research centers. The issues affect the quality of higher education in most Kenyan institutions which results into serious doubts about the innovative nature of the Kenya graduates.

The Kenyan situation is in contrast to the UKs situation. The UK government has invested heavily on education at all levels including the higher education level. The investment has ensured mitigation of policy challenges, building of quality learning infrastructure, support of many young students who seek to pursue higher education and quality course development. The funding has equally ensured adequate availability of learning materials, superior support systems such as well-equipped libraries, good lecture halls and well-trained trainers.

According to the report by KPMG (2014), the progress in higher education system in the UK has never been enough. It has not met the aspirations of all students that it was designed to achieve (Johnson, 2016). This is attributable to the financial challenges that the education sector is equally facing. Currently, the sector lack adequate funds to streamline its operations and ensure that every student attains higher education through government grants and loans. The government admits that a lot of progress has been made but more still needs to be done. More in terms of setting aside money for higher education grants, expansion of learning institutions, research and learning materials acquisition.

Additionally, funding is a problem in Kenya than UK based on the high corruption levels within the higher education system. The Kenyan system is characterized with immense corruption and misuse of the resources meant to finance higher education programs. This aspect is not a major issue in UK as the stakeholders ensure effective utilization of the available resources.


It is prudent to conclude that higher education system in Kenya and UK face funding challenges. The challenges threaten to impede the realization of the optimal performance levels and sustained world-class higher learning systems in the nations. From the study, funding issues are highly grave in Kenya compared to UK. The Kenyan higher education system receives minimal funding from the government as compared to the UK. The funding stands at 83mioolion dollars compared to the UKs over 26.3 billion pounds. Therefore, the UKs education system is much developed as compared to the Kenyan system. Many students in the UK are able to access higher education grants and loans. The universities in the nation are also able to fund their infrastructural development project, execute research on diverse issues and perform quality curriculum development.

List of References

Clark, N, 2015, Practical Information: Education in Kenya, World Education News and Reviews, Accessed on 13th Mar. 2016,

Deloitte, 2015, Making the Grade 2015: The Key Issues Facing the UK Higher Education Sector. Accessed on 13th Mar. 2016.

Johnson, J, 2016, Access to higher Education, The Gov. UK.

KPMG, 2014, Education in Kenya. Accessed on 13th Mar. 2016,